These substances can mainly be divided into two groups: the major compounds such as the monosaccharaides (glucose and fructose) and the minor compounds including amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and minerals, and polyphenols [9]. Honey has been shown to have an antibacterial effect on bacteria commonly present in wounds, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). For example, a compositional analysis of 26 samples of honey showed some important differences between different honey varieties but these did not include the sugar composition. observed that in northern India, honey moisture content ranged between 14.63 and 21.8% [26]. The inhibine was identified as hydrogen peroxide, a main antibacterial compound in honeys [30]. Moreover, in some cases, these products/compounds can be used in combination with antibiotics to enhance their activity. These enzymes have been studied and have been shown to contain similar properties of antibiotics. Many aspects of the antibacterial properties of honey have been reviewed and the growth of different bacteria has been tested in the presence of different concentrations of honey [4, 66, 70].Honey of different botanical origin and geographical area showed wide range of variation in their antibacterial … Indeed, Weston showed that an important relationship exists between the levels of this enzyme and glucose oxidase and the resultant antibacterial effectiveness [12]. Honey is an example of a naturally available product and is the only concentrated sweetener that can be found in nature. The high health-promoting properties of honey have been recently confirmed in many research investigations. High amounts of MGO are found in Manuka honey, up to around 800 mg/kg (up to 100-fold) higher compared to conventional honey [60, 62, 63]. Honey exhibits antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria in different milieu. However, recent studies on the antibacterial properties of diverse honey types produced worldwide have reported similar or superior antibacterial efficacy compared to Manuka honey. The increase in the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics is also an increasingly important factor behind the growing interest in the use of these natural compounds. They examined the pattern of use of 43 ingredients and tested their antibacterial properties. According to Bang et al., the production of hydrogen peroxide in some honey samples can increase continuously over time to a point depending on the dilution used [41]. It is clear that this feature is due to more than one factor. Nanda et al. This experiment compares the effect of different types of honey on bacteria growing on agar plates. Honey exhibits a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant (MRSA) ones. The main enzymes in honey are invertase (saccharase) and diastase (amylase) which are introduced to honey by bees. However, the sensitivity of bacteria to hydrogen peroxide produced in honey can be influenced by the presence of phytochemical compounds in honey [44]. In other words, the process of osmosis is an important feature in the antibacterial activity of honey and the extent of inhibition will depend on the concentration of the honey as well as the species of bacteria being studied [10]. Although it is believed that some of these enzymes come from nectar, [28] it is known that the α-amylase and α-glucosidase in honey comes from bee salivary secretions [29]. This review covers the antibacterial activity of honey, its use in the treatment of infection and diseases, and the features that are relevant to its activity. It is important to note, however, that in this assay the effective antibacterial concentration can be lower than the concentration applied to the agar due to honey’s dilution during diffusion [10]. Abstract. The most potent honeys, such as Manuka, dark buckwheat, Heather, or chestnut honeys, have their MIC values, ranging from 1% to 12.5% (w/v). The first explanation of the antibacterial activity of honey was reported in 1892 by Van Ketel [10]. All honey samples as well as artificial honey were tested at a number of concentrations (1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (w/v)). This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas … This indicates that obviously much lower than the 29% honey that would be required if the effect was based solely on water activity [35, 36]. 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