For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Britannica Explains In these videos, Britannica explains a variety of topics and answers frequently asked questions. A hoplite was a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek city-states.A hoplite's main weapon was his spear. Surviving examples of breastplates and helmets also display engraved decoration. A polis (plural: poleis) was the typical structure of a community in the ancient Greek world. These tactics inspired the future king Philip II of Macedon, who was at the time a hostage in Thebes, and also inspired the development of new kind of infantry, the Macedonian Phalanx. Hoplite. Hoplites were heavily armed Greek footman. A hoplite (from ta hopla meaning tool or equipment) was the most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier in ancient Greece from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, and most ordinary citizens of Greek city-states with sufficient means were expected to equip and make themselves available for the role when necessary. rule by the few. In a phalanx, each man's shield protected himself and also gave some protection to the right arm of the man on his left. The hoplite's shield was his defining piece of equipment, even lending its name, hoplon, to the soldier himself. unit of hoplites marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation. Terms in this set (23) untouchables. A hoplite was a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek city-states. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. What’s The Difference Between “Yule” And “Christmas”? 24 Dec 2020. This resulted in the left flank usually breaking formation first, and so this was the flank a competent commander would attack with priority, and he would, therefore, ensure he had his best troops on his own right flank. PLAY. Lippincott's Magazine Of Popular Literature And Science, No. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The tyrants often sprang from the fringe of the aristocracy; for example, the mother of Cypselus belonged to the ruling clan of the Bacchiads, but his father did not. Hoplites at War: A Comprehensive Analysis of Heavy Infantry Combat in... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. “Pagan” vs. “Wicca”: What Is The Difference? Cartwright, Mark. PLAY. This Is for Mr. Bartels AP World History Class. Sentence: In 510 BC, Cleisthenes introduced profound reforms which made democracy exist as a system of government for the first time in the world. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece. Hoplites: Strengths and Weaknesses Much of the debate between the hoplite orthodoxy proposed by Hanson in The Western Way of War and the revolutionists can be found here. This was made of wood or stiff leather, faced with bronze, and was held with the left arm placed through a central band (porpax) and gripped via a strap (antilabe) attached to the shield rim. AP World History Chapter 3 Terms. https://www.ancient.eu/hoplite/. Kylix with Black-Figure Hoplitesby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Hoplite definition, a heavily armed foot soldier of ancient Greece. Hoplite soldiers utilized the phalanx formation to be effective in war with fewer soldiers. Related Content lit′ic adj. After that initial contact, the opposing lines usually went through a series of pushing and shoving (othismos) and close-quarter fighting with swords which only ended when one side broke ranks. The pursuit of retreating hoplites was usually only over a short distance in order to maintain the protective close formation. The hoplite's armor--the panoply--consisted of a shield, helmet, breastplate, greaves (plate armor worn around the lower leg), sword, spear, and tunic, and weighed about seventy pounds. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. With the World's Great Travellers, Volume IV, A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, Volume I (of 2), Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 6. Definition of hoplite : a heavily armed infantry soldier of ancient Greece Examples of hoplite in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Armed and dangerous As the envoy made his way to Sparta to … What Are Other Ways To Wish Someone A Merry Christmas? killing of infants. Web. Thermopylae is a mountain pass near the sea in northern Greece which was the site of several battles in antiquity, the most famous being that between Persians and Greeks in August 480 BCE. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. No. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition ... phalanx. The hoplites were primarily represented by free citizens – propertied farmers and artisans – who were able to afford a linen armour or a bronze armoursu… From Ancient Greek ὁπλίτης (hoplitēs, “heavily armed foot-soldier”), from ὅπλον (hoplon, “arms, armor, weapon”) (from which English hopl-). This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer, Hoplites become increasingly lighter-armoured, as new, Athenian and Corinthian hoplites fight a street, A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the, Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near, Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece, Athenian Hoplite vs Spartan Hoplite: Peloponnesian War 431–404 BC. Last modified February 09, 2013. Hoplites were instrumental in the Greek warfare and the victories over Persia at the battles of Marathon (490 BCE) and Plataea (479 BCE). The hoplite carried a large circular shield (hoplon or aspis) some 80 cm (30 in.) A horseman fully armed is thrusting his spear into the body of his fallen foe,—a hoplite. The rank and file infantry were common citizens. Precisely because all of this equipment amounted to quite an investment, being a hoplite also indicated that the individual had a certain status in wider Greek society. in diameter and weighing as much as 8 kg. License. Fully armoured then, the hoplite was required to carry some 20 kg of equipment and so good physical training must have given one side a strong advantage (e.g. in history. Spell. Write. On engaging the enemy the hoplites first thrust their spears, usually overarm. All this on a soldier who himself probably weighed no more than 150 pounds. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? He spoke and dashed Peisandros from his chariot to the earth, smiting him with his spear upon the breast, and he lay supine upon the ground. But although we are called the ‘Hoplite’ Association, we focus on all military activities within the Greek sphere of influence from 490 to 430 BC, the period spanning the Persian to the Peloponnesian wars. Books Other city-states followed a similar policy which meant that hoplites were not professional soldiers and often lacked sufficient military training, although some states did maintain a small elite professional unit, the epilektoi. trireme. The weaknesses of the phalanx formation - attack from the flanks, rear, or when on rough terrain - were sometimes exploited by more wily commanders; however, the formation, albeit with lighter-armed infantry, was still in use through Hellenistic and early Roman times. Hoplites had a spear that was about 8-15 feet long called a doru/dory The xiphos was a short sword that was used as a secondary weapon when the doru/dory was broken or lost Lastly, hoplites had a large concave shield called an aspis/hoplon. See more. Learn. Protection was provided by a leather-lined bronze helmet which could vary in design, was often crested, and protected the head, neck, and face. Gravity. Other city-states followed a si… Greek Hoplites Fightingby Jan van der Crabben (CC BY-NC-SA). Athens had a system of compulsory military service for 18-20-year-olds, but during a war, all male citizens up to the age of 60 could be called up to the armed forces. The Hoplite would go on to become the symbol of power and masculinity in the Ancient Greek world, operating as a team of heavy infantry against lightly-armored and less-organized foes. Cite This Work XI. A corselet or breastplate (thorax) of bronze or leather (later reduced to a laminated linen vest to save weight - a linothorax), bronze greaves (knemides) to protect the shins, and sometimes arm-guards were also worn. Match. Sparta, where all male citizens over 20 were members of a permanent professional army, was the notable exception to this approach of only calling up an army when absolutely needed. The so-called ‘tribe’ in Greek city-states were rather a politico-military evolution, contrary to what ‘tribal’ warfare… (in ancient Greece) a heavily armed infantryman. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. The principal weapons of a hoplite infantryman were a long ash wood spear (doru) and a short sword (xiphos). We Asked, You Answered. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. A noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family who reformed the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing. Created by. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Cartwright, Mark. A horseman fully armed is thrusting his spear into the body of his fallen foe—a hoplite. Ancient History Encyclopedia. "Hoplite." Of the two figures in the chariot of slab xxiv., nothing now remains but part of the shield and left arm of the hoplite 58. Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. Traditionally, historians date the origin of the hoplite phalanx of ancient Greece to the 8th century BC in Sparta, but this is under revision. 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